Tuesday, October 26, 2010

How to use Biological and Chemical controls

Biological controls

Biological controls are nature's way of regulating populations. Biological controls rely on predators and parasites to keep organisms under control. Many of our present pest problems result from the loss of predator species. Other biological controls include birds and bats that eat insects. A single bat can eat up to 600 mosquitoes an hour. Many bird species eat insect pests in the garden. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a bacteria that specifically attacks larvae of some insect pests including white grubs in the lawn and Japanese beetles. This bacteria is harmless to desirable species.

Chemical controls

When using chemical controls, be very careful with pesticides. Most common pesticides are broad spectrum in that they kill a wide variety of organisms. Spray applications of insecticides are likely to kill numerous
beneficial insects as well as the pests. Herbicides applied to weed species may drift in the wind or vaporize in the heat of the day and injure non-targeted plants. Runoff of pesticides can pollute water. Many pesticides are toxic to humans as well as pets and small animals that may enter your yard.

Some common, non-toxic household substances are as effective as many more toxic compounds. A few drops of dishwashing detergent mixed with water and sprayed on plants is extremely effective in controlling
many soft-bodied insects such as aphids and whiteflies. Crushed garlic mixed with water may control certain insects. A baking soda solution has been shown to help control some fungal diseases on roses. When using pesticides, follow label directions carefully. Altering the rate of application or increasing the frequency of application can injure desirable plant and animal species.

                              that the best solution to your pest problem is chemical. by itself or, preferably, combined with non-chemical treatments be aware that one of the greatest causes of pesticide exposure to humans is the
use of pesticides in and around the home. Anyone can buy a wide variety of off the shelf pesticide products to control weeds, unwanted insects, and other pests. No special training is required to use these pesticides. Yet many of the products can be hazardous to people, especially when stored, handled, applied, or disposed of improperly. The results achieved by using chemical pesticides are generally temporary, and repeated treatments may be required. Over time, some pests become pesticide-resistant, meaning they adapt to the chemical and are no longer harmed by it. This forces you to choose another product or method. If used incorrectly, home-use pesticide products can be poisonous to humans. As a result, it is extremely important
for you to take responsibility for making sure that these products are used properly. The basic steps in reducing pesticide risks are:

Choosing the right pesticide product.
Reading the product label.
Determining the right amount to purchase and use.
Using the product safely and correctly.
Determining the Correct Amount To Use

Many products can be bought in a convenient ready-to-use form, such as in spray cans or spray bottles, that won't require any mixing.
However, if you buy a product that has to be measured out or mixed with water, prepare only the amount of pesticide that you need for the area where you plan to use the pesticide (target area). The label on a pesticide product contains much useful information, but there isn't always room to include examples of different dilutions for every home use. Thus, it is important to know how to measure volume and figure out the exact size of the area where you want to apply the pesticide. Determining the correct amount for your immediate use requires some careful calculations. Use the following example as an illustration of how to prepare only the amount of pesticide needed for your immediate pest control problem.

An example: The product label says, .For the control of aphids on tomatoes, mix 8 fluid ounces of pesticide into 1 gallon of water and spray until foliage is wet. You have only 6 tomato plants. From experience, you know that 1 gallon is too much, and that you really need only 1 quart of water to wet the leaves on these 6 plants. A quart is only ¼ of a gallon. Because you want to use less water than the label says, you need less
pesticide. You need only ¼ of the pesticide amount listed on the label only 2 fluid ounces. This makes the same strength spray recommended by the label, and is the appropriate amount for the 6 tomato plants. In short, all you need to do is figure the amount of pesticide you need for the size of your target area, using good measurements and careful arithmetic.

When you are ready to buy a pesticide product, follow these recommendations:
First, be certain that you have identified the problem correctly. Then, choose the least toxic pesticide that will achieve the results you want and be the least toxic to you and the environment. When the words .broad-spectrum. appear on the label, this means the product is effective against a broad range of pests. If the label says selective, the product is effective against one or a few pests.

Find the signal word either Danger-Poison, Danger, Warning, or Caution on the pesticide label. The signal word tells you how poisonous the product is to humans. Pesticide products labeled Danger-Poison are
Restricted Use and are mainly used under the supervision of a certified applicator. For the most part, these products should not beavailable for sale to the consumer. Choose the form of pesticide (aerosol, dust, bait, or other) best suited to your target site and the pest you want to control.

Storing and disposing of pesticides properly.