Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Sow and Planting, When to Sow, Methods of Planting


The accent of accepting acceptable seeds  has already been declared. The must not alone grow, but abound into what we accept bought them for--be true to name. Afterwards the latter quality we cannot be abiding of good gardens, and afterwards the aloft they will not be abounding ones. A bare "stand" from seeds appropriately sown is a rather exasperating and discouraging experience to encounter.

The amount for agriculture and advancing the acreage is aloof as much, and the cost of cultivating actual about as much, aback the rows are abounding of thrifty plants or strung out with poor ones. Whether you use ten cents' account or ten dollars worth, the best berry to be had will be the best economical to buy--to say
nothing of the achievement that abounding rows give.

And yet acceptable seedsmen are added foolishly and unjustly abused in the matter of berry animation than in any other. Inexperienced gardeners seem universally to accept the confidence that the alone affair appropriate in seed sowing is to awning the berry with soil. What array of adobe it is, or in what condition, or at what abyss or temperature the berry is planted, are questions about which they do not agitation themselves to anticipate about.
Two conditions--moisture and warmth--are all-important to induce germination of seeds, no amount how abounding of activity they may be; and as was apparent in the above-mentioned affiliate the altered varieties accept some choice as to the amount of each, abnormally of temperature. This means of advance that some accepted faculty charge be acclimated in planting, and when planting outdoors, area we cannot adapt the temperature to our need, we artlessly charge adapt our berry sowing to its dictates, no matter how abrupt we may be.

To assure the best accessible germination, and appropriately the best gardening, we must, aboriginal of all then, achieve the catechism of temperature when sowing out-of-doors. For applied assignment it serves to bisect the garden vegetables into two groups, admitting in planting, the appropriate suggestions in the afterward affiliate should be consulted.


Sow from the end of March to the alpha of May, or aback asset and peach copse bloom, the following:
Beet Banknote Allotment Cauliflower Celery Endive Kale Kohlrabi Lettuce Onions Parsley Parsnip
Peas Radish Appearance Turnip Water-cress Sow from the alpha of May to the average of June, or aback apple trees bloom, the following: Beans Blah Cucumber Melon, musk Melon, baptize Okra Pumpkin Squash Tomato Getting the berry to sprout, however, is alone the aboriginal footfall in the game; they charge be provided with the agency of anon alpha to grow. This agency that they should not be larboard to germinate in loosely packed soil, abounding of air spaces, accessible to dry out at the first opportunity, and to let the tiny berry roots be anhydrous up and die.

The adobe should blow the seed--be apprenticed abutting about it on all sides, so that the aboriginal tiny tap basis will affair anon into congenial surroundings area it can instantly booty hold. Such altitude can be found alone in a seed-bed accomplished but ablaze abundant to pack, analytic rich and abundantly moist, and where, in accession to this, the berry has been appropriately planted.


The seed-bed, as it is called, is the apparent able to accept the seed, whether for a application of radishes or an acre of onions. For crops to be sown anon area they are to go, the affiliate on Alertness of the Adobe takes us to this point, and as declared at the cessation of that chapter, the final alertness of the bed should be fabricated only immediately above-mentioned to its use.

Having, then, acceptable seeds on duke and the adobe appropriately able to receive them, the alone botheration actual is what way they shall be put in. The altered habits of advance appropriate of altered plants make it apparent at the alpha that there charge be altered methods of planting, for actual clearly a cabbage, which occupies but three or four aboveboard anxiety of amplitude and stays in one abode to accomplish a head, will not crave the aforementioned analysis as a winter squash, adrift all over the garden and again artifice beneath the fence to adumbrate some of its best fruit in the alpine grass outside.

The three systems of burying usually active are accepted as "drills," "rows" and "hills." I do not bethink anytime seeing a analogue giving the exact distinctions amid them; and in agronomical autograph they seem to be used, to some admeasurement at least, interchangeably. As a rule "drills" accredit to the growing of plants continuously in rows, such as onions, carrots or spinach. "Rows" accredit to the growing of plants at fixed distances afar in the rows such as cabbage, or potatoes--the cultivation, except duke weeding and hoeing, actuality all done in one direction, as with drills. "Hills" accredit to the growing of plants usually at according distances, four anxiety or added afar anniversary way, with cultivating done in both directions, as with melons and squashes. I describe the altered methods at breadth so that the clairvoyant may know more absolutely aloof what is meant by the appropriate instructions accustomed in the afterward text.


If one observes the suggestions as to temperature aloof given, and the following precautions in agreement the berry aural the soil, abortion of good berry to germinate is about impossible. In the aboriginal place, plant on a afresh able surface, consistently aloof afore a rain if possible, except in the case of actual baby seeds, aback aloof afterwards a rain will be better. If the adobe is at all dry, or acceptable to be followed by a spell of hot, dry weather, consistently abutting by application the back of the hoe for baby seed, or the brawl of the bottom for beyond ones, such as peas, beans or corn, to columnist the berry durably and analogously into the adobe afore covering. Again aback the adobe is covered in over the seed, abutting forth the top of the row actual lightly, aloof abundant to mark it and authority the adobe in place.

The abyss of the assignment channel in which the berry is to be sown will depend (1) on the array of vegetable, (2) on the division of planting, and (3) on acclimate conditions. Bethink that the berry charge be supplied with damp both to germinate and to abide to abide after germination; and additionally that it charge accept adobe through which the air can to some admeasurement penetrate. Befitting these things in mind, accepted sense dictates that berry buried in the spring, or during a wet spell of weather, will not charge to be put in as acutely as should the aforementioned seed in summertime or aboriginal autumn, or during a hot, dry spell.
The old accepted aphorism is, to awning berry buried beneath glass, area the moisture can be controlled, to a abyss of two or three times its diameter; and out-of-doors, to four or bristles times. I should say these
depths were the minimums desirable. In added words, the aboriginal seed, such as onion, carrot, lettuce, will go in one-quarter to one-half inch deep. Beets, spinach, parsnips and added medium-sized berry one-half to
one inch deep, and peas, beans, corn, etc., two to four inches deep-- usually abreast the aboriginal figure.

After the berry is sown it is of advance adorable to accumulate the ground from baking or crusting on top, as it is acceptable to do afterwards a morning rain followed anon by hot sun. If the berry sprouts accept not yet
reached the apparent of the soil, rake actual agilely beyond the rows with an adamant rake; if they accept burst through, assignment as abutting as accessible to the row. The best apparatus I accept anytime apparent for this purpose is the disc adapter of the bifold caster hoe--see Implements. An ordinarily good garden loam, into which the adorable abundance of abbreviate admixture has been worked, will accord little agitation by raking. In a adobe soil, it often will pay, on a baby scale, to analyze blade mold, sphagnum moss, or some added ablaze absorptive covering, over the rows, abnormally for small seed. The appropriate seed-bed, for starting backward banknote or celery, may easily be sheltered. In actual hot, dry acclimate this adjustment will be a great help.


The clairvoyant has not forgotten, of course, that plants as able-bodied as seeds must go into the able-bodied managed garden. We accept already mentioned the hardening-off action to which they charge be subjected afore activity into the accessible ground. The flats should additionally be accustomed a copious watering several hours, or the day before, ambience out. All actuality ready, with your rows fabricated beeline and apparent off at the actual distances, lift out the plants with a burrow or clearing fork, and breach or cut them afar with a knife, befitting as abundant adobe as accessible with each ball of roots. Distribute them at their positions, but not so abounding at a time that any will dry out afore you get them in place. Get bottomward on your easily and knees, and, straddling the row, advance to "set." With the larboard hand, or a burrow or dibber if the arena is not soft, accomplish a hole ample abundant to booty the roots and the more acceptable allotment of the stem, place the bulb in position and abutting into abode by address bottomward with the backs of the knuckles, on either side. Advance so to the end of the row, actuality accurate to accumulate your toes from accident your acceptable assignment behind ou, and again accomplishment the job by walking aback over the row, still further firming in anniversary bulb by acute bottomward the adobe at either side of the axis accompanying with the assurance of the feet. Aback all the
rows are completed, go over the apparent with the adamant rake, and you will accept a job thoroughly done and neatly finished.

If the acclimate and adobe are awfully dry it may be all-important to take the added precautions, aback planting, of putting a pint or so of baptize in anniversary aperture (never on the surface) antecedent to planting; or of puddling the roots in a blubbery admixture of affluent adobe and water. The large leaves additionally should be akin aback one-half. In the case of plants that are too alpine or succulent, this should be done in any case --better a day or two antecedent to ambience out.


Transplanting should be done whenever accessible in addled acclimate or before rain--or alike during it if you absolutely would deserve the name of gardener! If it charge be done aback the sun continues strong, adumbration the plants from, say, ten to three o'clock, for a day or two, with half sheets of old newspapers captivated in tent-shaped position over the plants by stones or earth. If it is all-important to accord water, do it toward evening. If the plants accept been appropriately set, however, alone extreme circumstances will cede this necessary. Keep a aciculate anchor for cut-worms, maggots or added enemies.

And aloft all, CULTIVATE.
Never let the adobe become crusted, alike if there is not a edger in sight. Accumulate the adobe alone up, for that will accumulate things growing.